Ecclesiology  Those called out by God to belong to Him.

The Elect, the chosen by grace through faith. Called out of darkness into light.

Ekklesia = called out. Elect or chosen

Matthew 20:16 'The last will be first & the first last'

Matthew 22:14 'Many are invited but few are chosen'

Romans 8:33 'Who will bring any charge against those whom God has chosen?'

Apostolic Fathers

Church History recorded by Luke. The acts of the Apostles.  From Ascension of Jesus to arrival of Paul in Rome.

Clement of Rome AD35-107 3rd Bishop. Ignatius 2nd Bishop of Antioch Death due to lions.

Polycarp 69-155 Bishop of Smyrna  martyred

Didache  Manual on Xian morals  & practice. Baptism by immersion

Hermas 2nd Century author of The Shepherd

Defenders of the faith : To save the educated Justin Martyr 100-165, Tatian  160, Tertullian 160-220

Theologian  Irenaeus 130-200 Opposed Gnosticism

Church Fathers:  Origen Cyprian of Carthage, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo

Growth of the Church of Rome

Irenaeus  taught church at Rome  founded by Peter & Paul. Both martyred by Nero

Church survived persecution of Nero. Paul’s letter to Romans elevated them.

Prestige of the capital of the empire. 100AD largest church in Christian world.

Resisted Gnosticism & other false teaching.

Apostolic  Creed formulated there. 150-170. Looked for leadership by other Christian leaders

Irenaeus :  It is a matter of necessity that every church should agree with this church. Rome.

Only church in the West associated by two apostles. Had strong & gifted leaders. Clement.

Clement wrote the Epistle of Clement of Rome.

Jerusalem destroyed in AD 70 & AD 135

Edict of Valentinian 445  Emperor  Primacy of the Pope.

Chalcedonian Formula 451 drawn up by Leo Bishop of Rome. Peter has spoken though the mouth of Leo.

Baptism:  Understood as Symbolised Christ’s death burial & resurrection. Believer participated in that. A wholly new relationship to Christ. Cleansing from sin. Receiving the Holy Spirit,  Admission into the church.

Sacramental View:  A rite which actually cleanses from sin  & the grace of God is received & new birth takes place.

Changes in meaning of baptism:

Essential Mark 16:16 'Whoever believes & is baptised will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned.'

Hermas taught baptism as the foundation of the church to wash away sin.

Justin: Baptism brought separation & insight washing away previous sins.

Tertullian believed it conveyed eternal life itself.

Infant Baptism:

Tertullian against it. Character change should take place first.

Constantine 337  Empire made Christian.  Baptism only if never sin again.

Origen. Baptism apostolic custom. Cyprian: earliest possible time.

Original sin, no salvation outside church, John 3:5 Water & the Spirit needed.

Universal 6thC Mode of Baptism

Baptizo- immersion Still used in the East. Didache immersed preferable. Affusion more convenient. No need of a bath!

Tertullian  Formal renouncing of evil, three times immersed, tasted milk & honey, then anointed with oil, hands laid on to receive the Holy Spirit, need of godparents.

Breaking of Bread:  Two Meals:  The BoB instituted by Christ. Then a love feast, a common meal of fellowship & helping the needy. Practised jointly  1 Corinthians 11:20

Later 2nd meal dropped.

Eucharist= thanksgiving 1 Corinthians 11:24  used by Tertullian adopted by RC.

Ignatius:  Medicine of mortality,  Antidote to death/ gives eternal life in Jesus Christ.

2nd C Real Presence seen as a sacrifice, needing a priest, offering sacrament with X present

Mass  4thC Sacrifice of the Mass  eucharist, prayer of thanks preceded the supper.

Unbaptised dismissed before Supper observed.

RC changed eucharist teaching transubstantiation. This is my body becomes body of Christ.

The Church:

Apostolic succession: Bishops take on role of Apostles, perform their functions, called like them

Authority lies with the bishop.  Apostolic succession assumed.

The church & salvation:  Cyprian  1st used  No salvation outside the church. He cannot have God for his Father who has not the church for his mother.

The Church & State.

Constantine  saw a vision of the cross & words “With this you will conquer.”

Church & Empire     7 sacraments:baptism, eucharist, holy/orders, marriage, extreme/unction, confirmation, penance

Protestant Perspective

Visible church. Baptism, sacraments, new birth unknown?

Invisible church:  Faith in finished work of Christ, in dwelt by the Holy Spirit  God’s elect.

Church militant wages war against  the world, the old nature & the devil

Church triumphant  - present with the Lord Jesus in eternity.

The Church:  Word of God preached,  Sacraments practised,  Discipline exercised by members.

The church separate from the state: In Germany/Lutheran, Swiss/ Reformed, UK/Episcopal

Reformation:  Visible & invisible church emerged. Born again of the Spirit evidence of elect.

Saved & active in living out their faith.

Forms of church govt:

Episcopal  Bishops    Overseer Acts 20:28  Presbuteros /elder  RC Cof E, Methodist

Presbyterian  Board of elders.  Acts 15  John Calvin taught it.  Ruling elder, teaching elder

Reformed churches.

Congregational  Local church autonomous  Ekklesia local meeting Baptist, Brethren

Baptism : Reformed taught Baptism replaced circumcision.  Children of believers baptised

Some believe Holy Spirit received even by babies.  Reformed: Saved until opposite appears Unsaved until positive fruit appears.

Believers baptism: Must be a believer in Jesus for salvation & received the Holy Spirit as a seal

The Breaking of Bread.

Luther rejected transubstantiation & replaced it with consubstantiation. Body & blood changed by faith. Zwingli:  Only a memorial. Do this in remembrance of Me. Calvin Spiritual presence.

Sacraments:  Baptism & Lord’s Supper . Prefer term ordinance for believers only

Basics all important.

Apostle’s Creed:

I believe in God the Father Almighty Creator of Heaven & Earth & in Jesus Christ His only Son our Lord who was conceived by the Holy Spirit born of the virgin Mary suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified dead & buried. He descended into Hades. The third day He rose again from the dead and ascended into heaven & is seated on the right hand of God the Father  Almighty. From there He will come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit of God, The holy universal Church, the communion of saints  the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body and the  life everlasting. Amen